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Only the dating of the wood, therefore, can permit certain and unequivocal classification.
A careful preliminary examination of the edges brought to light the presence of a set of new nails, whilst there are numerous free holes left by preceding nails.
There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers were produced but these rely very heavily on the presence of a watermark in the paper.
Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may also be of assistance or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type.
The ascertainment of the authenticity of this painting has been carried out with scientific tests on the material and through the study of techniques and signs of wear.
In detail: 1) with the spectroscopic dating of the wooden stretcher once proved its originality 2) with stereo microscopic analyses for the study of the painting layer: the drying of the paint binder, the craquelure, the sign left by the stretcher, etc.
The relative dating of documents or entries on documents can also be undertaken utilising such techniques as ESDA or by examination of offset ink transfers (caused by writing a document resting on top of a "wet" transferable ink).
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as originals as long as buyers of art refuse to follow the same line of conduct adopted when acquiring other products, that is to say insisting on a dependable guarantee of the objects authenticity as the condition for its purchase.
Thanks to the laboratory's modern equipment, a painting can be subjected to analysis using infrared reflectography, Wood's light, a stereoscopic microscope, IR spectroscopy and other instrumental techniques.3 e 4 - Microscopic analysis to examine the signs of ageing in the paint layer: the nature of the craquelure (natural or artificial - deep or superficial), the pigments (crystallinity, purity and size), restoration and other factors.